Posted by the Stretching institute
Walking has enjoyed a long history. Even after horses and other pack animals were domesticated, walking was still the preferred mode of transportation. Until the advent of the automobile; walking to and from destinations was the accepted practice.
If you’re looking to improve your walking or just seeking to prevent walking injuries it is important to follow the information in this article. In addition, adding a few simple stretches to your fitness program will also help.
Distance walking was common in ancient times due to the large spans between civilizations. Military groups had to march hundreds of miles to lay siege to other groups. In 100 AD Emperor Hadrian toured his entire empire on foot, marching 21 miles per day in his full armor.
Distance walking continued and in 1589 Sir Robert Carey walked 300 miles between London and Berwick to settle a wager. In 1762, John Hague walked 100 miles in 23 hours and 15 minutes, adding a timed feature to distance walking. Captain Robert Barclay, the Laird of Urie, took this even further when he walked 1000 miles in 1000 hours on a measured mile at Newmarket Heath in 1809.
In 1864 one of the first, and today’s oldest surviving, walking clubs was formed; the Black Forest Wanderverein. The “Pedestrian Age” was born in 1860 and walking became the leading sport in Europe and America. Many of the walkers earned purses from their raises equivalent to 100 years of wages. They were paid the equivalent of many of today’s sports icons. The first walking Championship race was held in England in 1866.
In 1867 Edward Payson Weston, named the “father of modern pedestrianism”, walked from Portland, Maine to Chicago, Illinois (a distance of 1326 miles) in 25 days and earned $10,000, a million dollar equivalent today. In 1879 Charles Rowell earned $50,000 in two 6-day Astley Belt Races.
In 1906 Race Walking entered the Olympics at the Interim Games in Athens, Greece. In 1991 the first race walk event was held in the U.S. at Coney Island. Walking continued to gain in popularity and became the most popular form of exercise in the U.S. in the 1990’s, with an estimated 65 million regular walkers.
Walking progressed from a means of getting from point A to point B, all the way to an Olympic level sport. Walking still enjoys popularity beyond most forms of exercise from the general public.
Whether for exercise or sport, walking is a sport that requires cardiovascular and muscular endurance. Good lower body strength is required, especially when walking hills. Balance is essential when Race Walking or walking on uneven terrain, as with the newest trail walking races.
Walkers require good strength in their lower body to ensure balance and endurance. Race Walking rules require the walker to adhere to a strict form that is taxing on the hips and legs. Strong, flexible lower legs help the walker handle uneven terrain and the occasional misstep. Core strength is important to maintain an erect walking position and the muscles of the upper extremities must be conditioned to handle the constant arm swing motion.
The major muscles used when walking are:
- The muscles of the legs; the calves – gastrocnemius and soleus, and the upper leg-the quadriceps and hamstrings.
- The muscles of the hips; the adductor and abductor muscles, the hip flexors, and the gluteals.
- The core muscles; the rectus abdominus, obliques, and the spinal erectors.
- The muscles of the upper extremities and shoulder; the biceps, the triceps, and the deltoids.
A good overall cross-training program, including weight training and flexibility training, will help the walker achieve success.
Most Common Walking Injuries
Walking is a very repetitive, low impact activity. Most injuries associated with walking are repetitive use injuries, although occasional trauma may occur.
A walker may fall victim to ankle sprains, meniscus tear (knee), hip flexor strains, blisters, and patellar tendonitis.
- Ankle Sprains: Ankle sprains can occur while walking even on level ground. A misstep step on a rock, or step off the edge of a track or sidewalk can result in the ankle rolling under or rotating awkwardly causing tearing of the ligaments that support the ankle joint. Pain at the site of the injury, swelling, discoloration, and tenderness may all be present with a sprain. It may be difficult to bear weight and pain may encompass the whole ankle area. Recovery time for an ankle sprain will depend on the severity of the sprain, and amount of tearing present. Rest, immobilization, ice, and NSAIDs will help the injury heal and recover.
- Meniscus Tear: As with ankle sprains, a misstep or step on an uneven surface may cause a twisting of the knee. Usually these twists do not occur with great force, but it may be enough to cause a small tear in the cartilage, meniscus, of the knee. This may result in pain, some localized swelling, and stiffness in the knee. A clicking or locking may occur in the knee at different times. A minor meniscus tear may take care of itself, although arthritis later may be an issue. A larger tear may require arthroscopic surgery to repair. After the surgery the knee will require a period of recovery and rehabilitation.
- Hip Flexor Strains: The hip flexor works to pull the upper leg upward. When walking uphill or over obstacles the hip flexor must work extra. If this muscle is weak it may be strained by the additional work, especially if not warmed up properly. A forceful stretching of the muscle, as with stepping in a hole, may also cause a strain of the hip flexor. Rest, ice (for the first 72 hours), and NSAIDs will help with recovery. A gradual return to activity, as tolerated, with good warm-up techniques will also speed recovery.
- Blisters: Walking requires a continuous stepping motion which causes the foot to move inside the shoe. Improperly sized or fitted shoes can cause excessive pressure and friction on certain areas of the foot causing the skin to become irritated and form a blister. Blisters can also occur when another injury has changed the walking form and the foot is subjected to different pressures. As the friction occurs on the outside of the foot, the body forms a pocket of liquid (serum) to protect the underlying tissue. Covering and cushioning the blister will reduce the friction while it heals. Try to keep the blister intact to prevent infection. If it does break keep it clean, dry, and covered.
- Quadriceps Tendonitis: The quadriceps tendon attaches the quadriceps to the tibia (with the patella imbedded in it.) Overuse of the quadriceps, tight quadriceps, or frequent downhill walking can all lead to tendonitis in this tendon. When the quad muscles tighten they pull on the tendon; and repetitive motions such as walking cause it to work more. Walking downhill puts the tendon in a stretch position (bending the knee) while the quadriceps are still flexed. This causes extra stress on the tendon. Pain, tenderness, and some swelling may be noted around the knee area with quadriceps tendonitis. Pain when bending the knee completely and when the quadriceps muscle is flexed may also be present. Rest, ice, and NSAIDs will help speed recovery.
Injury Prevention Strategies
A good overall conditioning program and the use of proper equipment will help prevent most injuries associated with walking.
- Choosing level, well maintained walking areas, such as a track or groomed trail, will help prevent traumatic injuries to the knee and ankle.
- Proper warm ups before beginning activities will help prepare the muscles, and the body, for the activity and reduce injuries, as well.
- A good cross-training program, including the use of weights and a good flexibility component, will ensure that the muscles are ready for the work at hand.
- Using properly sized and fitted shoes will help reduce blisters and prevent alignment issues.
- Walking alone can cause the muscles to become tight, especially those of the lower back and hamstrings. A good program of stretching to lengthen those muscles and increase flexibility is essential to overall health.
The Top 3 Walking Stretches
Stretching is one of the most under-utilized techniques for improving athletic performance, preventing sports injury and properly rehabilitating sprain and strain injury. Don’t make the mistake of thinking that something as simple as stretching won’t be effective. Below are 3 very beneficial stretches for walking; obviously there are a lot more, but these are a great place to start. Please make special note of the instructions beside each stretch.
|Squatting Leg-out Adductor Stretch: Stand with your feet wide apart. Keep one leg straight and your toes pointing forward while bending the other leg and turning your toes out to the side. Lower your groin towards the ground and rest your hands on your bent knee or the ground.|
|Kneeling Quad Stretch: Kneel on one foot and the other knee. If needed, hold on to something to keep your balance and then push your hips forward.|
|Standing Toe-up Achilles Stretch: Stand upright and place the ball of your foot onto a step or raised object. Bend your knee and lean forward.|